HRW report on Women’s Health Care in USA Immigration Detention
Human Rights Watch publicou esta semana un informe sobre os centros de detención de inmigrantes nos Estados Unidos, destacando as graves carencias na asistencia médica ás mulleres alí detidas. O informe leva por título “Detained and Dismissed: Women’s Struggles to Obtain Health Care in United States Immigration Detention”. Copio un extracto da súa introducción:
[…] Most immigration detainees in the United States are held as a result of administrative, rather than criminal, infractions, but the medical treatment they receive can be worse than that of convicted criminals in the US prison system. The inspector general’s office at the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has issued two reports in the past three years criticizing medical treatment at immigration detention facilities. Deaths in custody attributed to egregious failures of medical care have received prominent media attention and a University of Arizona study in January 2009 described failures of medical care for women detained at facilities in that state.
Underlying the individual stories of abuse and mistreatment is a system badly in need of repair, recent reforms notwithstanding. This report, based on interviews with women detainees, immigration officials, and visits to nine different facilities in three states, addresses one important component of the needed change: the medical care available to women detainees. As detailed below, we found that ICE [US Immigration and Customs Enforcement] policies unduly deprive women of basic health services. And even services that are provided are often unconscionably delayed or otherwise seriously substandard.
Abuses documented in this report range from delays in medical treatment and testing in cases where symptoms indicate that women’s lives and well-being could be at risk, to the shackling of pregnant women during transport, to systematic failures in provision of routine care. […]
While the immigration detention system’s flawed medical care affects both men and women, this report focuses on the situation of women detainees, roughly 10 percent of the overall immigration detainee population at any given time. These women include refugees fleeing persecution, survivors of sexual assault, pregnant women, nursing mothers separated from their children, patients detained amidst treatment for cancer, and many more women who have needs for basic medical care.
Many women in the United States continue to struggle with finding ways to access basic medical care. But for the thousands of women in immigration detention, there is only one way to get a Pap smear to detect cervical cancer, undergo a mammogram, receive pregnancy care, access care and counseling after sexual violence, or simply obtain a sufficient supply of sanitary pads: through ICE. In custody without other options, women receive care through ICE or are forced to go without.
In interviews with detained and recently detained immigrant women, Human Rights Watch documented dozens of instances where women’s health concerns went unaddressed by facility medical staff, or were addressed only after considerable delays.
- We met women who were denied gynecological care or obtained it only after many requests, including a woman who entered detention shortly after receiving news of an abnormal Pap smear. She told detention authorities that her doctor instructed her to get Pap smears every six months, but after 16 months in detention and many requests, she had still not gotten a Pap smear.
- We met women who were refused hormonal contraceptives during detention, including one who had inflamed ovaries and endured excruciating, heavy periods when the detention facility refused to provide her the birth control pills prescribed to manage her condition.
- We met women who, according to standards of medical practice in the United States, should have received mammograms, including one woman who had breast cancer surgery before detention and was instructed to get mammograms every six months. Due for her six-month check-up when she was detained, she waited four months for her first mammogram during detention, and did not receive another in her remaining 12 months there.
- We met women who complained of inadequate care during pregnancy, including one diagnosed with an ovarian cyst threatening her five-month pregnancy shortly before she was detained. Her doctor said the cyst should be monitored every two to three weeks, but during her stay in detention of more than four weeks, she was never able to see a doctor. The medical staff’s response to her last sick call request read, “be patient.”
- We met mothers who were nursing their babies prior to detention and were then denied breast pumps in the facilities, resulting in fever, pain, mastitis, and the inability to continue breastfeeding upon release.
- We met women who had to beg, plead, and in some cases work within the facility just to get enough sanitary pads not to bleed through their clothes, and one woman who sat on a toilet for hours when the facility would not give her the pads she needed.
[…] Official ICE policy, which focuses on emergency care and keeping the individuals in its custody in deportable condition, effectively discourages the routine provision of some basic women’s health services. ICE’s Division of Immigration Health Services (DIHS) has chief responsibility for the medical care provided to detained immigrants, whether it provides those services directly or through a contractor at a local facility. The DIHS Medical Dental Detainee Covered Services Package, which governs access to off-site specialists, says that requests for non-emergency care will be considered if going without treatment in custody would “cause deterioration of the detainee’s health or uncontrolled suffering affecting his/her deportation status.” Although, on occasion, officials have offered generous interpretations of this policy in its defense, the message about the scope of care provided remains clear. “We are in the deportation business… Obviously, our goal is to remove individuals ordered removed from our country,” ICE spokesperson Kelly Nantel told a reporter in June 2008. “We address their health care issues to make sure they are medically able to travel and medically able to return to their country.” […]
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