Morocco / Western Sahara: Broken Promises (AI report)
Amnistía Internacional (AI) publicou hai dúas semanas un informe sobre o Sahara Occidental, ocupado por Marrocos desde o ano 1975 (ata entón fora colonia de España). Marrocos considera o Sahara Occidental unha provincia máis do seu territorio e nega sistematicamente os direitos civís dos saharauis, comezando polo direito á autodeterminación. Para defenderse da guerrilla (Fronte Polisario), Marrocos construíu un muro de máis de 2 000 km rodeado por minas. Moitos saharauis viven nos campos de refuxiados de Tindouf (Alxeria).
O informe de AI, dunhas cen páxinas, leva por título “Morocco / Western Sahara: Broken Promises. The Equity and Reconciliation Commission and its Follow-up”. Copio un extracto da súa introducción:
[…] Since the early 1990s, there have been efforts to “turn the page” on past human rights violations through the release of hundreds of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience, the introduction of some legal and institutional reforms and the financial compensation of a number of victims of human rights violations and their families. However, it was the establishment and work of the Equity and Reconciliation Commission (Instance Equité et Réconciliation, IER), following King Mohamed VI’s decision in November 2003 approving the IER’s creation, that truly signalled a symbolic break with the past.
The IER, which was mandated to enquire into gross human rights violations that occurred between 1956 and 1999 particularly enforced disappearance and arbitrary detention with the aim of ensuring that such violations are never repeated, gave birth to hopes that a genuine effort was under way to address the legacy of the past. Its creation signalled that there was strong political will at the highest level of the state to improve the human rights situation in Morocco and Western Sahara. Indeed, the IER’s work was unprecedented in acknowledging the Moroccan government’s responsibility for committing grave human rights violations in the past and in seeking to provide redress for its many victims.
However, the IER was born with serious flaws that partially explain its failure to deliver on all the promises of equity and reconciliation. The IER’s mandate did not encompass all human rights violations committed between 1956 and 1999, and regrettably, despite outcries by victims and human rights organizations, excluded the identification of perpetrators of grave human rights violations. While the IER interpreted its mission more widely and addressed certain violations initially left outside its mandate, it was not as innovative and assertive in challenging the exclusion of justice from its work. Particularly disappointing was its failure even to recommend that perpetrators of human rights violations are held accountable. To date, the overwhelming majority of Moroccan officials alleged to have committed gross human rights violations during the period covered by the IER’s mandate have not been brought to justice; and there are no indications of the authorities’ intention to do so in the future. Instead, the official discourse promotes the notion of “reconciliatory justice rather than accusatory justice”, which translates into impunity for grave human rights violations. […]
Enlaces sobre minas e bombas de fragmentación:
- Cluster Munition Coalition
- Handicap International
- International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
- Landmine Action
- Mines Advisory Group (MAG)
- United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS)
- Pere Ortega: “El 11-M y Unión Española de Explosivos” (Centre d’Estudis per la Pau “J. M. Delàs”, IV – 2004).
Enlaces sobre o Sahara Occidental:
- “Human Rights in Western Sahara and in the Tindouf Refugee Camps” (HRW report, 19 – XII – 2008)
- Asociación de Familiares de Presos y Desaparecidos Saharauis (AFAPREDESA)
- Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental (ARSO)
- Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización del Referéndum en el Sahara Occidental (MINURSO)
- Sahara Presse Service
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