Informe de AI sobre o conflicto étnico do sur de Tailandia: víctimas civís e outras violacións do Direito Humanitario
Amnistía Internacional (AI) publicou esta semana un informe sobre Tailandia, centrado nun deses conflictos que permanecen olvidados mentras os mass media non dispoñan de motivación económica ou política, ou dalgunha anecdótica imaxe espectacular. O informe leva por título “They took nothing but his life”: Unlawful killings in Thailand’s southern insurgency. Copio un extracto da súa introducción:
[…] For the past seven and a half years, all or part of Thailand’s four southern-most provinces have been wracked by an insurgency pitting variously armed and organized ethnic Malays —nearly all Muslims— against the officially and predominantly Buddhist Thai state. Nearly 5 000 people have been killed and thousands more injured [see South Thailand insurgency on Wikipedia].
The Thai authorities have arrested over 5 000 people, many of whom were then arbitrarily detained, and in many cases, subjected systematically to torture. The government has also resorted to enforced disappearances and extrajudicial executions.
On their side, the insurgents have deliberately attacked “soft targets”, farmers, house-workers, teachers, students, religious leaders, monks, civil servants, or persons with vague or tenuous affiliation with the security forces or counter-insurgency efforts.
From January 2004 to June 2011 (the latest month for which statistics were available), at least 64 per cent of all those killed in the conflict were civilians, or in legal terms, “persons taking no active part in hostilities”.
Amnesty International believes that the insurgents in southern Thailand, through widespread killings of civilians from both Buddhist and Muslim communities, are committing acts aimed at spreading terror among the civilian population. Although beyond the scope of this report, other actions by the insurgents are also aimed at spreading terror, including detonating bombs in markets and other crowded places; planting improvised explosive devices by the side of busy streets; planting landmines on rubber plantations; beheading some of their victims; and attacking (often via drive-by shootings) or otherwise destroying or defacing businesses, infrastructure, or other private or public property. Amnesty International calls on the insurgents to immediately cease attacks deliberately targeting civilians, indiscriminate attacks, and other violations of international humanitarian law, many of which constitute war crimes. […]
Targeting persons taking no active part in hostilities violates one of the key rules of international humanitarian law, as it pertains to armed conflicts such as the one in southern Thailand, which is an internal or “non-international” conflict. Article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, which is binding on all parties to internal armed conflicts, provides that certain acts against “persons taking no active part in the hostilities … are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever”. Under customary international humanitarian law, “acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited”. […]
- “Targets of Both Sides”. Violence against Students, Teachers, and Schools in Thailand’s Southern Border Provinces (Human Rights Watch report, 20 – IX – 2010)
- “No One Is Safe: Insurgent Attacks on Civilians in Thailand’s Southern Border Provinces” (Human Rights Watch report, 27 – VIII – 2007)
- “It Was Like Suddenly My Son No Longer Existed”. Enforced Disappearances in Thailand’s Southern Border Provinces (Human Rights Watch report, 19 – III – 2007)
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