“The EU’s dirty hands: Frontex involvement in ill-treatment of migrant detainees in Greece” (HRW report)
Hai dúas semanas Human Rights Watch (HRW) publicou un informe dunhas sesenta páxinas sobre as condicións dos migrantes en Grecia. Póñense de manifesto as responsabilidades dos países que colaboran no Frontex, a axencia que a Unión Europea creou para a “seguridade” das súas fronteiras exteriores. O informe leva por título “The EU’s Dirty Hands: Frontex Involvement in Ill-Treatment of Migrant Detainees in Greece”. Copio un extracto da súa introdución:
Between November 2, 2010 and March 2, 2011, nearly 12 000 migrants entering Greece at its land border with Turkey were arrested and detained. The detention facilities where they were held did not meet minimal human rights standards. Though their treatment varied from place to place, the European Court of Human Rights has held that migrant detention in Greece generally constitutes “inhuman and degrading treatment”.
During this same period, the European Union’s (EU) agency for the management of operational cooperation at external borders, Frontex, provided Greece with both manpower and material support, made available by participating states, which facilitated the detention of those migrants in sub-human conditions in Greece’s overcrowded migrant detention centers. […]
In order to comply with human rights obligations not to expose migrants to the inhuman and degrading conditions in the Evros region, Frontex should immediately make its engagement in border enforcement operations in Greece contingent on the placement of apprehended migrants in facilities with decent conditions, which could be achieved in the short term by transferring irregular migrant detainees to other areas of Greece where detention standards are acceptable, such as on Samos Island, or making detention spaces available in other places in the EU where conditions meet international and EU standards.
Furthermore, all states that participate in Frontex and contribute border guards and material support also bear responsibility and incur liability for human rights violations by virtue of their involvement in Frontex activities. All participating states are bound by the European Convention on Human Rights, and participating EU member states are also bound by the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights. Each participating state should carefully review its co-operation under the auspices of Frontex with a view to assessing the risk that such co-operation facilitates the violation of fundamental rights.
While the primary focus of this report is on Frontex and its responsibility not to be complicit in human rights violations, it is not meant to absolve the Greek authorities from their responsibilities. Since 2008, HRW has published three reports documenting Greek violations of the rights of refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants. Several other organizations have published similar reports. Greece’s well documented failure not only to provide decent conditions of detention for migrants but also asylum for refugees has been acknowledged by the Greek government, which should take immediate steps to improve detention conditions and implement the recently announced reforms of its asylum system.
As new migration crises emerge in the Mediterranean basin and as Frontex’s responsibilities expand, there is an urgent need for a shift in EU asylum and migration policy from an enforcement-first policy to a protection-first policy. This is not only legally required but is a worthy and achievable approach for the EU, its agencies, and member states to take in addressing real problems that are susceptible to real—and principled—solutions.
- “Stuck in a Revolving Door: Iraqis and Other Asylum Seekers and Migrants at the Greece/Turkey Entrance to the European Union” (HRW report, 26 – XI – 2008)
- “Left to Survive: Systematic Failure to Protect Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Greece” (HRW report, 22 – XII – 2008)
- “No Refuge: Migrants in Greece” (HRW photo brochure, 2 – XI – 2009)
- “The Dublin II trap: Transfers of asylum-seekers to Greece” (Amnesty International report, 22 – III – 2010)
- “Greece: Irregular migrants and asylum-seekers routinely detained in substandard conditions” (Amnesty International report, 27 – VII – 2010)
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